Penguins are a family of flightless aquatic birds that live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. They are easily identified by their distinctive black and white coloring, which helps camouflage them in the water as they hunt. Although they are birds, they have flippers instead of wings, and thus cannot fly. On land, they will waddle upright, although if it is snowy enough, they will often slide on their bellies. They are expert swimmers, with some species being able to reach speeds of up to 15 miles per hour.

The Antarctic Peninsula, where half of the world's emperor penguins and 70% of the Adelie penguins can be found, is heating up faster than the global average and melting the sea ice that the penguins depend on for places to breed and access to food.